The delay in psychosexual development is manifested in the fact that the timing of the onset of sexuality lags behind the age of the child.
This may be due to biological causes, for example, lag in sexual development. One of the causes is a disruption of the endocrine system. In severe disorders, for example, with congenital agonadism (underdevelopment of the sexual glands), it is possible to have asexuality – complete loss of sexual components in the mental development of the personality. This is the most profound and difficultly corrected delay in psychosexual development.
The delay in psychosexual development can be caused by disturbances in the development of the psyche, for example, with a general lag in mental development. Or psychosexual retardation can be isolated, and the rest of the psyche develops in a timely manner. In these cases, sexual and physical maturation passes correctly and corresponds to the age norms.
As noted by VM. Maslov, IL Botneva, GS Vasilchenko, the most often delayed psychosexual development is due to anomalies of nature. They are also in patients with psychopathies, with accentuation of character, and with the so-called pathocharacterological development of the personality. Among the patients seeking sex-aide care, such patients are the majority.
Psychopathy is an ugliness of character, from which either the person himself or others suffers. But psychopathy is not only an ugliness of character, but also a mental illness. In an unfavorable situation, with the impact of even an insignificant from the point of view of a normal person, a mental trauma that strikes a “weak spot,” or “a place of least resistance” to a psychopath (in different cases of psychopathy, the “weak spot” is different), his reaction to this situation can be Inadequate (that is, not corresponding to the irritant).
Most often this disease is found only when the psychopath due to a violation of relationships with other people or as a result of a mental trauma there is a so-called decompensation and social maladjustment, that is, a violation of adaptation to the environment, a conflict internal (personal) or external (with Other people). To cope with this situation alone, a patient with psychopathy can not, so often a psychiatrist’s help is required. And before that, his relatives and friends may not even suspect that he suffers from psychopathy, believing that he is simply “difficult”.
However, a harmoniously developed personality does not have a “difficult” character. Absolutely all deviations of the psyche from the norm, including the anomalies of character, in psychiatry have their names. Every mental deviation has its own patterns of development and its external manifestations, and the psychiatrist can always predict (or at least assume with sufficient probability) how one or another person will behave in an unusual or habitual situation.
All the words that people denote the character of a person: evil, vindictive, vindictive, quick-tempered, irritable, explosive, “nervous”, sensitive, vulnerable, boastful, “weak-willed,” constantly depressed or too cheerful, hesitant, self-confident, withdrawn, , Emotionally cold, – they all talk a lot about the psychiatrist and characterize the person’s personality.
Personality is a term adopted in psychiatry, but in ordinary life people use the word “character”. This is not synonymous, since the concept of “personality” is broader than the concept of “character,” but since it includes individual characterological features, I will use the word “character” that is familiar to everyone.
Unfortunately, most people do not know what psychopathy is, and in everyday life a “psychopath” is called a person who is quick-tempered, controversial, explodes on any occasion, “like gunpowder,” which is difficult to get along with. Yes, all these manifestations of psychopathy, but only one of its kind – the so-called explosive (excitable) psychopathy.
In fact, there are more than ten types of psychopathies, and their manifestations can be diametrically opposed.
For example, a person who is indecisive, insecure, constantly doubting and rechecking himself, incapable of making a decision and experiencing an inferiority complex, also suffers from psychopathy, it is called psychasthenic psychopathy.
Always cheerful, active, active, cheerful, good mood of which can not even shake any troubles, a perpetual joker and a beginner, a lover of adventures and adventurous adventures – also has psychopathy, it is called hypertensive.
And the eternal whiner and pessimist, who is constantly depressed, dissatisfied, always in a bad mood, sees everything “in the black light”, complains of life, illnesses and difficulties – also a psychopath, and this is a constitutionally depressive (hypotensive) type of psychopathy.
Excessively vulnerable, who resents and grieves at any trifle, which a normal person does not even pay attention to, is a psychotic lap of the circle.
A man who, above all else, puts his own pleasures and entertainments, not wanting to strike a finger on his finger to do something useful or at least make money for his own entertainment, the weak-willed, the lazy and the slacker who sits on his wife’s neck and does not at all Burdensome is a psychopath of an unstable circle.
Extremely sensitive, impressionable, “mimosa-like”, vulnerable, touchy, shy, fearful and shy person with high moral demands to himself, because of what he constantly feels his own inferiority, adapts to the new team with difficulty, does not know how to get acquainted with new people and Can communicate only with those whom he has known for a long time, is a psychopath of a sensitive circle.
Evil, vindictive, vindictive and cruel, with periods of causeless, drearily angry mood, when he is looking for someone to disrupt the accumulated evil, and rip it off on the first person who gets to his arm, a defenseless person, can ruffically scream and even, For a trifle to beat any person, including his wife and children, is a psychopath of the epileptoid circle.
A person who has periods of unreasonably high mood, when he is cheerful, active, everything he does and everything he does turns out, and then he is as unreasonably attacked by “melancholy”, his mood is bad, everything falls from his hands, and he Do not want to do anything, and for whatever he undertakes, nothing happens – this is a psychopath of the cycloid circle.
A person who on the same day the mood can change twenty times, and from any trifle, then he comes to rapture, then grieved, – emotionally labile psychopath.
An amateur is always in the center of attention, a braggart and a visionary who tells about himself the unthinkable fictional stories, the main participant of which he allegedly was, a pathological liar who tries to attract attention to himself in any way, even by outright lies, bragging or imaginary illnesses – a psychiatric hysteroid Circle.
Weak, fatigued, for which the usual loads are excessive, and he gets tired of everything, and from work, from communication, and from insignificant mental stress, easily gets irritated – a psychopath of the asthenic circle. Some of them are excessively preoccupied with their own health, constantly listen to their feelings and their bodies, complain of ill health, poor health, lie down in bed because of the slightest indisposition and feel that they are seriously ill, like to visit doctors and make a lot of different complaints . Although they have no illnesses, but they are sure that they are seriously ill, and doctors can not find their nonexistent disease in any way. All members of the family regard them as seriously ill people and they force their loved ones to take care of themselves, they require a special regime and a special diet – they are called asthenic hypochondriacs or simply hypochondriacs (from the word “hypochondria” – excessive concern with one’s own health), and the disease itself – astheno-hypochondriac psychopathy.
Emotionally cold, withdrawn person who does not feel affection for anyone, even for his family, or his emotions are paradoxical – he can feel sorry for a sick dog or a completely stranger and at the same time completely indifferent to his relatives and their experiences, is not capable of sympathy And empathy, is immersed only in his own world, in which he does not admit anyone, and it is impossible to “get through” to him, – the psychopath of the schizoid circle.
There are also so-called emotionally stupid psychopaths, callous, soulless, heartless people, for whom there are no norms of morality and morality, deprived of a sense of shame, honor, compassion and remorse. They are emotionally cold, indifferent to their loved ones, they do not have emotional responsiveness to someone else’s pain and others’ sufferings. They are selfish, they do not care about the opinion of others, many of them lead a loose way of life, have no spiritual interests. There are no higher emotions, mental activity is primitive. They are incapable of attachment, unable to create a family and build normal interpersonal relationships, they are conflicted, stubborn, deceitful and cruel. Many have been sadists since childhood. They have no attachments to anyone, not even to their loved ones. About spiritual warmth, kindness, attention to other people they have not the slightest idea. Without any reason, they can insult a person or try to annoy him.
They do not love anyone, everyone hates, they are not capable of any normal human feelings – empathy, pity, sympathy, kindness, responsiveness, gratitude. They are indifferent to others, indifferent to their grief and sorrow, they are not able to experience joy and happiness. These people are said to be as cold as ice. Sometimes these are joyless people who do not have a sense of humor. And some of them are just thoughtless, they do not care about anything but their own needs. They have no moral principles, no idea of good and evil, norms of behavior in society, and the law and criminal punishment for violations of the law. Many of them are immoral and antisocial people who neglect social duties and easily transgress the law. Most criminals are emotionally stupid psychopaths (they are also called sociopaths). Their whole life is a continuous series of antisocial actions, conflicts with society and law – from thefts, robberies – to violence, self-mutilation and even murder. They do not spare not only the peace of mind of other people, for them nothing is worth even a strange life.
There are also mosaic psychopathies (that is, a person’s personality is composed of mosaic elements), when one person combines features inherent in different types of psychopathy.
Even for this very brief description of not all, but the most frequent options, you have the opportunity to see that the manifestations of psychopathy are very diverse.
Even in cases where the patient himself suffers most from psychopathy, for example, with psychasthenic, labile, sensitive psychopathy, the features of his character are also reflected in his relatives. With a psychopath it is difficult to live, it is not easy for a normal person to adapt to it. Violations in patients with psychopathy are manifested in the volitional sphere (lack of will, violation of volitional activity), in emotional, in response to external stimuli and in behavior. Significant violations are in patients with psychopathy and in the sphere of drives, so they are so often sexual disorders and perversions.
That is, every person who has these or other individual characteristics of a character, a psychiatrist can be attributed to a certain group. But this does not mean that absolutely all people suffer from psychopathy.
In those cases when a person has certain individual characteristics of his personality that do not reach the level of pathology, they are easier than with psychopathies, and a person is compensated, that is, he copes with his problems independently and adapts himself to the environment – psychiatrists speak of accentuation Character.
Both psychopathies and character accentuations with similar manifestations are called identically, for example, asthenic psychopathy and asthenic character accentuation, hysterical psychopathy and hysterical accentuation of character and so on. With different types of character accentuation, many features resemble those of psychopaths of the same name, but they are much less pronounced and are not a pathology, but a variant of the norm, individual personality characteristics.
The inhibitory effect of psychopathy on psychosexual development begins to affect already at the stage of the formation of sex-role behavior and is manifested most at the most responsible stage – with the formation of psychosexual orientations.
Many forms of psychopathy are accompanied by a delay in psychosexual development, in particular, asthenic, psychasthenic, schizoid, hysterical, and others.
Patients with asthenic and psychasthenic psychopathy are characterized by shyness, shyness, indecisiveness, touchiness, impressionability, weakness of motives. This makes it difficult to communicate with others and leads to a violation of the ability to communicate with peers.