Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland, accompanied by its swelling and painful sensitivity. Often this disease occurs secretly and leads to a violation of sexual function and spermatogenesis.
In addition, prostatitis is very often accompanied by vesiculitis – inflammation of seminal vesicles.
Each patient has this disease provoked by a combination of several unfavorable circumstances and has many risk factors. The first and main factor is age. The older the man, the larger the prostate. And the whole trouble is that with age, not only does the prostate gland increase, but the likelihood of such an unpleasant disease as prostatitis. And over the last decade, this disease has plagued more and more men.
Moreover, recently this disease has somewhat “grown younger” and now occurs in 25-30-year-olds. This disease often develops in men of the menopausal period. In our time, according to various data, prostatitis suffers from 20 to 40% of the male population of the planet. Some data are even more pessimistic. According to these sources, prostatitis affects up to 80% of men.
Prostatitis can be caused by a bacterial infection. Often, prostatitis is the result of untimely and incorrect treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.
Bacterial prostatitis manifests itself in acute and chronic forms. Symptoms of this disease are usually manifested by pain in the joints, muscles, lower back, area behind the scrotum.
Acute prostatitis is accompanied by chills and fever, which start suddenly with pains in the lower abdomen and perineum, as well as with acute urge or difficulty urinating, sometimes leading to a delay in urine. When urinating, there is severe pain or burning, sometimes there is blood in the urine.
Infection of the kidney or bladder is an additional risk factor. In this case, pathogenic microbes enter the prostate from the urethra. The infection rises along the prostate ducts.
Although bacterial prostatitis is sometimes called infectious, its forms are not contagious and a man can not pass it on to his sexual partner. If you notice symptoms of prostatitis, consult a doctor immediately. The disease is easily treatable if therapy is started on time.
If the treatment does not work for several days, there may be some other problem, for example abscess of the prostate (accumulation of pus in the gland). If the abscess is suspected, the doctor will prescribe an ultrasound examination or another method of diagnosis.
Pus from the gland can be sucked off with a needle inserted into the gland through the rectum or perineum. Acute prostatitis, if left untreated, can lead to chronic prostatitis, which is extremely difficult to treat.
Chronic bacterial prostatitis usually manifests itself by repeated infections of the urinary tract, difficulty, frequent and painful urination, pain in the lower back, in the perineum, penis, scrotum. These signs appear gradually, sometimes disappearing for a while.
Often noted increased sweating, a feeling of cold in the perineum. Characterized by increased irritability, hot flashes, lethargy, fatigue, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance. Of the other symptoms, it should be noted discharge from the urethra, especially after defecation or physical exertion. This is due to the weakening of the tone of the prostate gland.
Prolonged existing inflammatory, stagnant and cicatricial changes in the prostate affect the nerve endings that are present in this organ, which transmit impulses to the centers of sexual arousal (erection) and ejaculation (ejaculation), therefore sexual functions are primarily violated.
Ejaculation disorder in patients with chronic prostatitis occurs in the form of premature ejaculation. In the long course of the disease, along with a decrease in the level of sex hormones in the blood, sexual desire may decrease.
The most severe outcome of prostatitis is the scarring of prostate tissue with subsequent wrinkling of the organ. Prostatitis worsens the condition of the kidneys and ureters, involves them in the inflammatory process. In the future this can lead to urolithiasis.
In the elderly, there is often a combination of prostatitis with prostate adenoma. One of the reasons for the chronic course of the disease is the preservation of bacteria in the prostate gland after the end of treatment of an infectious disease of the genito-urinary organs. Sometimes it happens that after treatment with antibiotics symptoms disappear, but the disease remains. This usually happens when the patient arbitrarily stops taking medication, because he considers himself cured, or when he takes antibiotics himself, without the supervision of a doctor. Such treatment often leads to the fact that microbes persist, moreover, they acquire resistance to certain antibiotics. Preservation of bacteria in the prostate gland can be explained by the fact that antibiotics act on it less efficiently, since they are poorly absorbed by its tissues. Another possible cause of the chronic course of the process is the infection of prostate stones.
Non-bacterial prostatitis is not associated with a microbial infection. There is this disease very often. Antibiotics on it, of course, do not work. In addition, no one still knows exactly the cause of this disease. But undoubtedly, the development of the inflammatory process in the prostate gland largely depends on a complex of predisposing factors – metabolic and circulatory disorders, the presence of stagnant phenomena in the organ.
Most patients with non-bacterial prostatitis do not have urinary tract infections. When analyzed in the secretions of the gland, white blood cells – leukocytes are detected, which indicates an inflammatory process, but traces of infection in the urine are not detected.
Symptoms of this disease almost do not differ from signs of chronic bacterial prostatitis.
Prostadinija, or morbidity of a prostate, can be caused by spasms of muscles of a neck of a bladder, a urethra, a pelvic floor. It is not associated with infection in any way. Symptoms are the same as with chronic prostatitis. But there is a difference in diagnosis and treatment.
It is not always possible to say clearly what caused the inflammation of the prostate. Naturally, if improper treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary sphere increases the likelihood of inflammation of the prostate. In addition, prostatitis is not only a consequence of these diseases, but also is combined with them. For example, this disease can “neighbor” with urethritis, vesiculitis, etc.
The cause of prostatitis is often a stagnation of secretion in the prostate gland along with stagnation of blood in the veins of this organ. This is associated, as a rule, with an irregular sexual life.
Venous congestion can appear with a sedentary lifestyle, with constipation, with alcohol abuse. All this does not pass for the prostate gland without a trace and in the end will make itself felt unpleasant symptoms of prostatitis.
Diagnosis of this disease is rather difficult. Sometimes the symptoms described above can be caused by other causes: infections of the genitourinary system that do not affect the prostate gland, inflammation of the urethra, prostate adenoma, etc. Because the organs in this place are closely connected and closely located, it is difficult to pinpoint the source of trouble.
The easiest way is to identify the acute bacterial form. But for other cases, different diagnostic tools (tests, ultrasound diagnosis, urologist consultation) are needed.
The main means of diagnosing prostatitis is urine analysis, performed by a special technique. It is necessary to collect certain portions of urine in different dishes.
When comparing urine samples, the doctor can determine the source of the infection, if it exists, of course: it can be a urethra, a bladder, a prostate.
Having determined the causative agent of the disease, the doctor will be able to select the most suitable medicine for this type of infection.
An important test for prostatitis is a gland massage, performed with ABM – a digital rectal examination. This is done through the rectum. This is a nondescript procedure, and it does not last long, but most men feel uncomfortable. However, it is this examination that quickly provides important information that can not be obtained in any other way, because the prostate gland can not be examined from outside because of its location.
At this examination, the doctor vigorously massages the gland or squeezes it, so that the liquid secretions come out from the urethra. They are collected and examined under a microscope. With an acute prostatitis, a very sensitive, swollen, hot or hard prostate is found during BMD. In this case, the massage stops, otherwise the infection can get into the blood. The germs that caused acute prostatitis can be easily detected in the urine. The final diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, urine and fluid in the prostate gland.
With acute prostatitis, first lower the temperature, and it is usually high, and stabilize the patient’s condition. Diuretics and laxatives are often prescribed. The latter are needed in order to facilitate the passage of the chair. The prostate gland is located next to the rectum, and the strain accompanying this process can cause pain.
In some cases, when the patient is unable to urinate independently, a catheter is inserted.
Further antibiotics are appointed, and especially individually and depending on the type of microbe that causes the infection.
Self-medication and unauthorized discontinuation of medication are unacceptable. In this case, the disease can go into a chronic form, which is difficult to treat. A strict regimen for taking medicines should also be followed for chronic bacterial prostatitis. Here, the success of treatment depends entirely on the correct antibiotic. If the effective drug could not be found, the infection seems to be suppressed, an improvement occurs, but a few months after the treatment the disease resumes.
With non-bacterial prostatitis, antibiotics are useless. With this form of prostatitis, doctors try to alleviate the symptoms of the disease. Prescribe medications, relaxing muscles. Alpha-blockers relieve the tension of the muscles of the prostate and facilitate urination. Sometimes recommend anti-inflammatory drugs and hot sessile baths. Some people are helped by a diet. It is noted that some foods, such as spicy foods and caffeine, increase the symptoms of prostatitis. This applies to alcoholic beverages.
Stagnant phenomena in the prostate, when there is no acute inflammatory process, are often recommended to remove therapeutic gymnastics and massage.